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PHEV2007 Complete Proceedings

Table of Contents

Quick downloads (PDF files only)

PHEV2007 Techncial Papers Papers zipped files
Keynote Speakers Keynotes zipped presentations
Battery Technologies Part I Session 1 zipped files
PHEV Impacts on Utilities and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Part I Session 2 zipped files
PHEV Simulations Part I Session 3 zipped files
Battery Technologies Part II Session 4 zipped files
PHEV Impacts on Utilities and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Part II Session 5 zipped files
Renewable Energy Integration and Drivers Session 7 zipped files
PHEV Experiences and Futures Session 8 zipped files
Policy in Support of PHEV Session 9 zipped files
PHEV Simulations Part II Session 10 zipped files
The Future of University Student Competitions Session 11 zipped files
PHEV Programs and Funding Session 12 zipped files
PHEV and its Role for Sustainability Session 13 zipped files
PHEV Implementation Session 14 zipped files
Advanced Vehicle Design and Simulations Session 15 zipped files
Future of PHEV and Closing Remarks Session 16 zipped files
Student Posters Posters zipped files

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Techical papers

Author: Alistair I. Miller, Senior Scientific Associate, Office of the Principal Scientist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)
Title: A Historic Perspective on the Future Cost of Off-Peak Electricity for EVs
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Shereez Ali and Narayan C. Kar, University of Windsor
Title: An energy based model for optimization of motor runtime in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
Technical Paper Download PDF document

Authors: Lars Ole Valoen and Mark I. Shoesmith, E-One Moli Energy Canada Ltd.
Title: The effect of PHEV and HEV duty cycles on battery and battery pack performance
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Author: Nigel Fitzpatrick, Azure Dynamics Corporation
Title: Canadian sponsored plug-in hybrids and their impact
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Author: Huang-Yee Iu, Hymotion
Title: Analysis of the performance of the Hymotion plug-in electric vehicle fleet
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Mariam Khan and Narayan C. Kar, Department Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Windsor
Title: Performance analysis of fuzzy-based indirect field oriented control of induction motor drives for hybrid electric vehicles
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Wilhelm E., ETH Zurich, Switzerland; E., Fowler and M.W., Fraser, R.A., Stevens, M.B., University of Waterloo
Title: Hardware-in-the-loop platform development for hybrid vehicles
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Author: Mike Waters, Tom Outlaw and Kelly Boone, CSE Consulting
Title: Using Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle impact summary for the progress energy Carolinas territory
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: C.J. Mendes, CrossChasm Technologies and M.B. Stevens, M.W. Fowler and R.A. Fraser, University of Waterloo
Title: Model-based design approaches for plug-in hybrid vehicle design
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Charles Dahan, Elizabeth Lee, Albert Mathews, Simon Ouellette, Olivier Proulx, Amrit Richardson, Peter Radziszewski and Jeff Turner, McGill University
Title: Investigating the conversion of a personal watercraft to electric/hybrid drive through the use of Matlab/Simulink
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Simon Ouellette, Charles Dahan, Elizabeth Lee, Albert Mathews, Olivier Proulx, Amrit Richardson, Peter Radziszewski and Jeff Turner McGill University
Title: Design challenges and possible benefits of electric/hybrid utility snowmobiles
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Simon Ouellette, Charles Dahan, Geza Joos, Elizabeth Lee, Albert Mathews, Olivier Proulx, Amrit Richardson, Peter Radziszewski and Jeff Turner, McGill University
Title: Development of a series PHEV "Formula type" race car
Technical Paper: Download PDF document

Authors: Amir Hossein Eghbali and Behzad Asaei,University of Tehran
Title: Using ultracapacitors for saving energy in regenerative braking in hybrid vehicles
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Quick keynote List

Keynotes

Author: Andy Frank, UCDavis
Title: The Plug-In Highway for energy sustainability in both transportation and stationary use Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Jasna Tomic, WestStart-CALSTART
Title: Beyond Hybrids - The HTUF process and pathway for plug-in hybrids
Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Phillip Sharer, Argonne National Laboratories
Title: The Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit - PSAT
PresentationDownload PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Mark Duvall, Program Manager, Electric Transportation, Electric Power Research Institute
Title: Environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles -- energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts
Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology

Title: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Challenges and unprecedented opportunities into the future

Presentation: Play Windows Media Video

Author: David Hughes, Geological Survey of Canada
Title: The Energy Sustainability Dilemma: Powering the Future in a Finite World
Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Felix Kramer, Founder California Cars Initiative, Cal Cars
Title: Mapping the future of PHEV
Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Chelsea Sexton, Plug In America
Title: Plug-in Hybrids, the Role of Grassroots Efforts in Transforming an Industry
Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Ewan Pritchard, Advanced Energy
Title: Experience gained with PHEV school buses
Presentation: Download PDF document   1Play Windows Media Video   2Play Windows Media Video

Author: Peter Frise, CEO AUTO21
Title: Industry & University collaborations on future transportation research
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Keynotes

Author: Andy Frank, UCDavis email

Title:The Plug-In Highway for energy sustainability in both transportation and stationary use

Abstract: His talk will provide the motivation and need to move society quickly toward ameliorating the effects of burning fossil fuel on Climate change and address the impending oil peak that has occurred. The talk will show that it is possible to move toward a zero carbon society now without waiting for new technology breakthroughs using our present energy infrastructure. The talk will show some of the hardware developed at the University of California--Davis and provide a summary of the performance achieved. The talk will then show how the PHEV can be used to level the load of the power generating system and how it can be integrated into renewable energy generators and gradually reduce the need for backup generation since the PHEV represents distributed energy storage at the locations where it is needed. Finally the talk will show how the PHEV will lead to energy independence by motivating each individual to be himself energy independent without any sacrifice, and in fact, with a great improvement in his lifestyle.

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Author: Jasna Tomic, WestStart-CALSTART email

Title: Beyond Hybrids - The HTUF process and pathway for plug-in hybrids

Abstract: The presentation will focus on the experiences and successes of the HTUF process - bringing users and suppliers together and creating a successful market for hybrid trucks. The structure and the different stages of the process will be described. The experience and results of the field deployment of the twenty-four hybrid trucks - the largest field testing of hybrid trucks to date - will be shared. The process has been valuable not only in demonstrating the benefits and best uses of hybrids, but in speeding up the development of testing protocols. The lessons learned from this process are valuable in the development of the plug-in hybrid pathway, which is potentially more challenging due to the more complex technology. The talk will conclude with a pathway for plug-in hybrids which includes the additional benefits of the PHEV technology (e.g. V2G and export power).

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Author: Phillip Sharer, Argonne National Laboratories email

Title: The Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit - PSAT

Abstract: The U.S. Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) describes plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as a way to dramatically increase energy efficiency and use spare electric generating capacity. The U.S. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan describes the different activities required to achieve the goals. The U.S. DOE will use PSAT to guide its analysis activities, stating that: ANL's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) will be used to design and evaluate a series of PHEVs with various 'primary electric' ranges, considering all-electric and charge-depleting strategies. The primary outcomes of the vehicle analysis are (1) potential for fuel consumption reduction of PHEVs as a function of propulsion system configuration, component sizing and control algorithms, and (2) component performance goals and requirements (for R&D/solicitations). Argonne uses an integrated approach complementing simulation with vehicle testing and hardware in the loop to help DOE fulfill their PHEV research goals.

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Author: Mark Duvall, Program Manager, Electric Transportation, Electric Power Research Institute email

Title: Environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles -- energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts

Abstract: This presentation will describe the results of a comprehensive study of the energy, climate, and air quality impacts of widespread adoption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States from 2010 to 2050. This study is a cooperative effort of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Natural Resources Defense Council with the following objectives:

Results of this study include a detailed, U.S. nationwide analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The “well-to-wheels” analysis accounted for emissions from the generation of electricity to charge PHEV batteries and from the production, distribution and consumption of gasoline and diesel motor fuels. Researchers used detailed models of the U.S. electric and transportation sectors and created a series of scenarios to examine assumed changes in both sectors over the 2010 to 2050 timeframe of the study. The air quality study models both the transportation and electric power sectors in the year 2030 to explore the impact of PHEVs on criteria emissions and subsequent effects on air quality and deposition. The study examined a high electric-sector emission case where nearly all additional electricity demand needed to power an aggressive market penetration of PHEVs was assumed to be met by an increase in the use of present-day coal-fired generation technology with only currently required environmental controls. This is consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy’s 2006 Annual Electric Outlook, which assumes no national greenhouse gas policies or constraints, and a sizable increase in coal-fired generation.

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Author: Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology email

Title: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Challenges and unprecedented opportunities into the future

Abstract: This presentation begins with a brief description of the current status and future trends in the automotive industry. The motivation for the research, development, and commercialization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will then be explained. In addition, different PHEV configurations and business models will be presented with a focus on engineering fundamentals as well as state-of-the-art research and development in the areas of PHEV components and system integration. In this presentation, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) aspects as well as plug-in on-board/off-board issues of the power electronic chargers will also be reviewed. Energy storage systems including Li-ion and NiMH batteries and their associated electronics and electronic control units will be described as well. Hybridizing the energy storage systems using ultra-capacitors will be presented as an attractive possibility. Furthermore, power electronic and propulsion motor drive issues will be covered in detail. Particular attention will be given to the hybrid drive trains and PHEV controllers. Throughout the presentation, related component-level as well as system-level challenges are explained and possible solutions are recommended. Unprecedented opportunities in the areas of power electronics, energy storage, system control, and hybrid drive trains will be highlighted together with the power grid unique prospects. Various PHEVs and PHEV conversion kits, which have recently been introduced, will be reviewed. The plug-in hybrid electric conversion kit (P-HECK) developed at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and its start-up company - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc. - will be described in detail. In addition, related projects of IIT's Electric Power and Power Electronics Center will be presented.

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Author: David Hughes, Geological Survey of Canada email

Title: The Energy Sustainability Dilemma: Powering the Future in a Finite World

Abstract: The explosive growth in global energy consumption over the past 160 years marking The Age of Hydrocarbons has allowed the world's population to grow five-fold, per-capita energy consumption to grow eight-fold, and total global energy consumption to rise by 43 times. The Energy Sustainability Dilemma arises from the fact that 89% of today's consumption is derived from non-renewable fuels (oil, gas, coal and uranium), and each of these fuels will have a production peak within the 21st century. Managing the transition to a more sustainable future in a non-chaotic manner will be a challenge of unprecedented proportions for humankind - a challenge that must be faced objectively and proactively employing all of our options for demand reduction and incremental supply. Failure to do so comes with very real risks for the well-being of future generations.

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Author: Felix Kramer, Founder California Cars Initiative, Cal Cars email

Title:Mapping the future of PHEV

Abstract: In April 2006 Felix Kramer became the world's first non-technical consumer owner of a plug-in hybrid. Now PHEVs are broadly supported by elected officials across the political spectrum, corporations, government, media and citizens groups. And automakers have said they're a good idea but have not yet committed to mass production timetables. He says, "I envision millions of PHEVs, charged off-peak, providing distributed storage for a power grid fueled by increasingly renewable sources. Local travel will be electric, and low-carbon biofuels will provide range extension. This is a great way to significantly reduce greenhouse gases and use of imported oil." Felix Kramer talk will focus on the advantages of PHEV and how the technology may be rolled out into the market place.

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Author: Chelsea Sexton, Plug In America email

Title: Plug-in Hybrids, the Role of Grassroots Efforts in Transforming an Industry

Abstract: When General Motors ended the EV1 program in 2001, Chelsea left the company and went on to make meaningful contributions in other areas. Still, cars, energy and technology remain so much a part of her DNA that she continues to focus on how they may be used to improve our global economy and environment. Chelsea joined the X PRIZE Foundation and led the creation of its next prize effort, which will deal with both energy and automobiles. Chelsea continues to focus on these issues through her non-profit, Lightning Rod, and serves as the Executive Director of Plug In America, a coalition of individuals and organizations that advocates for the use of plug-in vehicles by assisting legislators in creating effective policy, working with automakers to encourage production, and through consumer education. Chelsea is one of the key individuals featured in the 2006 film, "Who Killed the Electric Car?" by Sony Pictures Classics, the book "Plug-In Hybrids, the Cars that Will Recharge America" by Sherry Boschert, and in the Sundance Channel Series, "Big Ideas for a Small Planet."

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Author: Ewan Pritchard, Advanced Energy email

Title: Experience gained with PHEV school buses

Abstract: As a creative problem solver with more than 10 years of experience and expertise of industrial heating processes, Pritchard also spend time consulting with facilities throughout North Carolina about infrared and radio frequency process opportunities. He also has expertise in data logging, data analysis, education on thermal processes and extensive work on the gas catalytic study. Pritchard quickly became invaluable to the team for his creativity and ability to look at projects from a different angle. He often draws on his experience in both laboratory and in-plant environments in the fabrication shop, where he helps design and build prototype equipment for industrial customers to test in their plants.Pritchard earned his bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering and master's of science degree in mechanical engineering with a focus on energy from N.C. State University. He is an active member and a past chairman of the Eastern North Carolina Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He also is an active member of the Triangle Electric Automobile Association. His professional experience includes work with forging at GKN Automotive, several years of teaching computer courses at N.C. State University and computer aided drafting and design experience.

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Author: Peter Frise, CEO AUTO21 email

Title: Industry & University collaborations on future transportation research

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PHEV2007 Address

Author: MP Joy Smith, Manitoba Caucus Conservative Chair

Title: 2007 Plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle conference in Winnipeg

Today Joy Smith, Member of Parliament for Kildonan-St. Paul, on behalf of the Honourable Gary Lunn, Minister of Natural Resources, spoke at the Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (PHEV) 2007 Conference in Winnipeg. MP Joy Smith discussed the importance of clean energy technologies and how they will help Canada meet its environmental goals. "We have an obligation to leave the environment and our planet healthier than we found it, and at the same time, make sure future generations have the same economic opportunities and prosperity we enjoy,"said MP Joy Smith."We can do this if we become more energy efficient; if we produce more clean energy; and if we sharpen our focus on developing and using the technologies that allow us to be cleaner producers and consumers of energy. I am proud that our government has set out a practical, balanced plan to achieve these goals." The conference focused on the range of opportunities and challenges that Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (PHEV) presents for sustainable transportation. It also provides a forum for collaboration amongst industry, academia, utilities, governments and institutions to understand how PHEV technologies integrate into current and future transportation systems and the electrical power grid. The Government of Canada has taken leadership of the environment in the following areas:

Author: Eric Bibeau, University of Manitoba

Title: PHEV2007 Opening

Canada derives 16% of its primary energy from renewable sources. Some see it is as only 16%; some see it as 84% fossil; others stagnant at that same value for the last few decades. More important, 16% renewable shows no sign of moving to 17% renewable. PHEV is a technology, if applied strategically, can move Canada over the 20% renewable threshold without an economic impact on consumers Welcome to the PluginHighway: PHEV2007 - Where the grid meets the road. We have many objectives to achieve in the next 2 days, from understanding recent improvement in battery technology, all the way to public education on PHEV benefits. I would like to thank all those who help with the organization of this conference, volunteers and conference supporters Our platinum supporters reflect the fact this is after all an energy issue. NRCAN is responsible for our natural and renewable resources; Manitoba Hydro with a 98% renewable electrical energy mix and has the ability to double its generation capacity while still maintaining a 98% renewable energy mix. Gold supporters: The Province of Manitoba support of PHEV is important because it bring great benefits to Manitobans; the support of Transport Canada to help introduce this technology to Canadians is required The financial contribution from our silver sponsors, the City of Winnipeg and Clean Cities is much appreciated, especially in providing us our conference coordinator, Ajaleigh Williams. The support from NSERC Prairie office, the University of Manitoba and the University of Winnipeg is acknowledged Many thanks to our bronze sponsors. A key objective of this conference is to network PHEV researchers, industry and government. NSERC is sponsoring a PHEV networking workshop in parallel with this conference through their Strategic Network Program.

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Technical Sessions


Session 1: Battery Technologies Part I
Topic: Battery technologies for PHEV applications

Authors: K. Zaghib, P. Charest, A. Guerfi M. Dontigy and M. Peticlerc, Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Québec, 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, J3X 1S1, Canada email

Title: Olivines for HEV and PHEV applications

Abstract: Download PDF document Presentation: Download PDF document

Author: Andy Chu, A123Systems email

Title: The use of A123Systems technology in PHEV applications

Abstract: A123Systems has demonstrated significant advantages in power, safety and life, using proprietary doped Nanophosphate technology initially developed at MIT. Building upon successful power tool batteries, A123Systems has expanded its product offering to include Automotive Class Lithium Ion™ cells for transportation applications, including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). A123Systems currently supplies Automotive Class Lithium Ion™ cells for the Saturn Vue and Chevy Volt PHEV development programs and is the leading PHEV conversion company with its subsidiary Hymotion. One of the unique features of A123's technology is the ability to use the same active materials for high power and high energy applications. In high power applications, A123's technology exhibits very low impedance growth due to cycling or elevated temperature storage. This ensures a consistent power capability over the lifetime of the battery. The combination of high-power and low impedance growth allows the batteries to be smaller and lighter with superior price-performance. For applications that require more energy, such as PHEV, A123's doped Nanophosphate cells offer good energy density, while maintaining low cell impedance. This is important to minimize the waste heat generation, thus simplifying thermal management. Excellent deep-discharge cycle life allows more of the battery's energy to be used, by widening the range of state-of-charge (SOC) during cycling. Furthermore, the technology exhibits superior abuse tolerance, a critical factor for large format applications.

Authors: Yaser Abu-Lebdeh and Isobel Davidson, National Research Council of Canada email

Title: Advanced Li-ion battery technologies for Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV)

Abstract: Li-ion batteries, due to their ability to deliver higher voltage, power density and energy density which translates into smaller, lighter, and more powerful batteries, are the main candidate for the electrical storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). However, although current Li-ion batteries seem to meet the minimum requirements of PHEVs whereas other battery technologies do not, there is still need for developing improved materials in order to make the batteries safe, low cost, efficient and longlasting. In this work we have focused our attention on developing new highly stable electrolytes that enable us to increase the operating voltage of the battery and hence its energy density by utilizing high-voltage cathodes. These cathodes that are based on spinel or olivine materials have voltages around 4.5 to 5.3 V which are higher than the upper voltage limit (stability) of all known commercial battery electrolytes but lower than that of our new electrolytes which we found to be stable to around 5.7-6 V. These new electrolytes are based on relatively cheap solvents (~ 60 US $/L) with low volatility (B.p. ~ 300°C) and low flammability (F.p. ~ 160°C), and were prepared with non-corrosive lithium salts. Their properties and performance were investigated in lab scale, coin cell size batteries and we found that besides their very good electrochemical stability the electrolytes showed high ionic conductivities reaching 5-10 mS/cm over a wide temperature range and an anti-corrosive protection to the aluminum current collector. Li-ion batteries assembled with graphite or Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 or LiNiPO4 as cathodes were shown to have quite good electrochemical performance. For the cathode, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is preferred due to its discharge capacity at a higher voltage of ~ 4.8 V. A new method based on the combination of sol-gel and microwave assisted synthesis was developed and gave a material with nanoparticles of 40 nm diameter. Batteries based on the new nano-cathode are being optimized in conventional and our newly-developed electrolytes. Preliminary results show that discharge capacitances reaching 111 mAh/g can be obtained with a much improved cyclability. Additionally, LiNiPO4, a 5.2 V cathode material, was synthesized using the same method and its chemical and electrochemical and battery performance are under investigation.

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Session 2: PHEV Impacts on Utilities and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Part I
Topic: Impact of PHEV on the utility grid system and vehicle to grid applications

Authors: Ed Innes, Emerging Energy Technologies, Manitoba Hydro email

Title: PHEV, energy efficiency, and comparison to alternatives

Abstract: PHEV is one of several promising vehicle technologies. PHEV will be discussed as a solution to energy security, a problem gaining increased attention from governments and industries around the world, particularly in light of the sharply rising cost of petroleum since 2000. An explanation of petroleum supply issues relative to supply and demand will be posited to explain this price rise and the failure of several prestigious bodies to predict it. These issues will be used as a backdrop for the importance of properly defining energy efficiency and considering its effects, which in turn will be used to assess PHEV technology from an overall energy consumption perspective. PHEV technology will then be compared to hydrogen, commonly regarded as the "fuel of the future", to see if PHEV is a stepping stone to hydrogen or to some other energy solution.

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Author: Alistair I. Miller, Senior Scientific Associate, Office of the Principal Scientist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) email

Title: A Historic Perspective on the Future Cost of Off-Peak Electricity for EVs

Abstract: Vehicles powered by electricity (EVs) or by a combination of electricity and hydrocarbons (PHEVs) can take advantage of off-peak storage of electricity. This allows cheaper power and avoids increasing peak consumption. While this approach offers less capacity and flexibility for off-peak storage than converting electricity to hydrogen - where storage can encompass many days of average consumption - using off-peak power directly avoids most of the substantial energy losses of interconversion between electricity and hydrogen and so the fuel cost is substantially less. Two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Alberta) have market-driven wholesale pricing for electricity. Analysis of Ontario data indicates that the appropriate cost to use for off-peak electricity would be around 50-60% of the average if equal amounts of electricity were to be stored daily based on low-cost overnight power. Data for 2005, with an overall average cost of 6.85 ¢/kW.h, are likely most representative of future electricity costs in Ontario and are also consistent with the cost of generation from new nuclear capacity using ACR=1000™ reactors. Alberta electricity costs have tended to be higher than in Ontario but 2005 had a very similar average (7.04 ¢/kW.h). However, Alberta costs are consistently more variable than Ontario's and the average two-hour daily minimum is only around 33% of the overall average.

If electricity were to provide 90% of the energy output of a typical PHEV, the 2005 wholesale cost of off-peak electricity would translate into approximately 120 $/a (Alberta) and 140 $/a (Ontario) for a typical Canadian traveling 20 000-km/a in a light vehicle using electricity for 90% of its propulsion. Electrical grid distribution costs would also have to be added, though one can argue that these should be fairly small since electricity is only being used at times of lowest demand. Ontario's existing coal-fired generation capacity is used intermittently. In contrast, because of their capital-intensiveness, nuclear plants are best operated continuously. We show that replacing Ontario's existing coal-fired plants with new nuclear plants operated continuously would easily create enough off-peak electricity to supply electricity for over one-third of the Ontario light-vehicle fleet if these were PHEVs or EVs in 2015. Annual CO2 emissions would be reduced by over 6 million tonnes.

Presentation Download PDF document   Technical Paper: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Alec Tsang, Asset Management & Planning, Generation, BC hydro email

Title: EV charging evaluation - impact on utility

Abstract: BC Hydro is assessing the impact of electric vehicles on the utility grid. The study focuses on power quality and other electrical characteristic that could emanate from a cluster of electric vehicles charging from a single site, such as a commercial fleet of electric vehicles charging in the fleet parking facility. The objective is to predict the type and magnitude of adverse power quality impacts that may arise from the proliferation of electric vehicles such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). In the absence of available PHEVs, electric golf carts with high-frequency switching chargers (similar to the chargers that are poised for use in PHEVs were used as a proxy. Up to 45 golf carts were used to collect a month worth of power quality data. The original golf cart chargers were also measured to provide a comparison between the two types of battery charging technologies.

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Session 3: PHEV Simulations Part I
Simulation results of hybrid powertrains and PHEV architecture will be presented using simulation software. This session is related to the simulation courses occurring during the conference and to promote the use of simulation tools in support of sustainable transportation

Authors: Matthew Stevens and M.W. Fowler, University of Waterloo, Green Energy Research Institute email

Title: Modeling battery degradation in plug-in hybrid vehicles

Abstract: Plug-in hybrid vehicles are receiving a significant amount of attention in the automotive sector due in part to their potential for reduced emissions, reduced dependence on oil supplies, and higher efficiencies as compared to conventional internal combustion engine powertrains. A major limitation to commercialization of plug-in hybrid vehicles remains battery durability. The component duty cycle has a significant impact on the battery durability. Within the context of a hybrid vehicle this duty cycle is both a function of the vehicle drive cycle and a function of the hybrid control strategy, which determines the usage battery to provide the required power. This paper includes the incorporation of battery degradation into a Simulink based plug-in hybrid vehicle model which has been developed using data from the University of Waterloo Alternative Fuels Team's hybrid Chevrolet Equinox. While the vehicle is a hybrid fuel cell vehicle, a significant amount of beginning-of-life data has been gathered for validation of the electric components of the powertrain. These validated models have been incorporated into a plug-in hybrid vehicle model that has been integrated into the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software package. Using simplified battery degradation models, powertrain degradation is three charge depleting hybrid control strategies. The resulting impact on fuel consumption, charge-depleting range, and acceleration is provided over the life of the simulated vehicle. The results will provide insight into plug-in hybrid vehicle modeling and the impact of charge-depleting hybrid control strategies on long term durability of the powertrain.

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Author: S. S. Williamson, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, email

Title: Optimal control strategy design for extending all-electric driving capability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)

Abstract: It is a well-known fact that hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) mainly use energy storage devices to improve vehicle efficiency through engine downsizing and by recapturing energy during braking events. Recent advancements in HEV research has given rise to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which have the ability to recharge their energy storage systems directly from the grid. This additional charging results in extended periods of all-electric operation, thus further reducing the dependence on the internal combustion engine (ICE). This characteristic of PHEVs is particularly useful in city driving conditions with numerous starts and stops. One of the major challenges for PHEV development is the precise selection of battery energy storage technology and supplementary all-electric driving range improvement. This requires taking a closer look at the modeling and design of the control strategy for specific driving load conditions. This paper aims at investigating explicit control algorithms for PHEV operation for various city driving loads, and suggests an optimally designed strategy, which takes into account the improvement of critical energy storage parameters, overall drive train efficiency, and vehicle performance characteristics. The Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) software is used for modeling and simulation purposes. Finally, the paper also suggests future trends in the design and development of PHEV drive trains.

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Authors: Shereez Ali and Narayan C. Kar, University of Windsor email

Title: An energy based model for optimization of motor runtime in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Abstract: Download PDF document   Presentation: Download PDF document   Technical Paper: Download PDF document

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Session 4: Battery Technologies Part II
Topic: Battery technologies for PHEV applications

Authors: Lars Ole Valoen and Mark I. Shoesmith, E-One Moli Energy Canada Ltd., email

Title: The effect of PHEV and HEV duty cycles on battery and battery pack performance

Abstract: Download PDF document   Presentation: Download PDF document   Technical Paper: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Authors: A. Abouimrane and I.J. Davidson, National Research of Canada, Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology email

Title: Electrolytes for lithium batteries with improved thermal stability

Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have rapidly become one of the most successful of rechargeable batteries [1]. They are widely used in cell phones, laptop computers, and other portable electronic devices and have recently become available for power tools. While the calendar life and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries is adequate for these applications (5 years at an operational temperature of 0 - 40ºC), other applications, including those for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), full electric vehicles (EVs), military, aerospace, and satellites, require significantly longer calendar life (10-15 years) and improved thermal stability (50 - 60 ºC). Electrolyte systems for lithium-ion batteries consist of organic solvents and lithium salts. In today's lithium ion batteries, ethylene carbonate (EC) is the key solvent due to its low cost, good electrochemical stability, and high dielectric constant, which permits better ionic dissociation of the salt and improved ionic conductivity. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is mixed with the EC (typically, 1:1 ratio) to reduce the viscosity. LiPF6 has been the preferred salt because it dissolves readily in carbonates and its cost is lower than other lithium salts. A liquid electrolyte composed of EC, DMC and LiPF6 exhibits conductivity greater than 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature. The shortcomings of this system are the sharp reduction in conductivity at temperatures below about ?10ºC, due to poor thermal stability above 40ºC due to the low melting point of DMC. In this study, in order to improve the thermal stability of the lithium electrolytes, a new approach based on the replacement of the DMC co-solvent by succinonitrile is presented. Succinonitrile is a solid at room temperature, melting at 54ºC and has a boiling point of 265ºC. When mixed with a lithium salt, with or without a co-solvent such as ethylene or propylene carbonate, succinontrile displays a high room temperature ionic conductivity [2]. In this work, we will present the results of an investigation of the properties and electrochemical performance of several succinonitrile based electrolytes made with non-corrosive lithium salts. Result shows succinonitrile to have considerable promise as an effective electrolyte component that merits further investigation. References 1- T. Nagaura and K. Tozawa, Prog. Batteries Solar Cells, 9 209 (1990). 2- A. Abouimrane, P. Whitfield, S. Niketic and I.J. Davidson, J. Power Sources, accepted.

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Authors: Gitanjali DasGupta, Electrovaya email

Title: Conversion Kits & Battery System Solutions for PHEVs with Electrovaya's proprietary Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® Technology

Abstract: This paper will present two sides of PHEV development at Electrovaya. Firstly, at the system level, it will outline the conversion design of Electrovaya's Ford Escape PHEV. This Ford Escape PHEV, with up to 130 mpg equivalency, was delivered to the State of New York in early August 2007 and is the first Escape PHEV delivery as part of New York's $10-million PHEV program. Electrovaya's non-invasive system design features a 12kWh MN-Series Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® battery with integrated intelligent battery management system. The second part of this paper will outline Electrovaya's proprietary battery technologies and its advances for clean transportation. Electrovaya's MN-Series Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® technology is distinguished by a superior energy density (up to 50% greater) with comparable safety characteristics to the Phosphate-Series. Its large-format prismatic cell design enables significant scale-up and integration advantages. Other clean transportation activities at Electrovaya include its zero-emission passenger vehicle program with Miljobil Grenland/Norsk Hydro, off-road vehicle program with New York State Parks and fleet delivery van program with Purolotor, Unicell and Sustainable Development Technology Canada. In its other divisions, Electrovaya is a Prime Contractor with NASA and a Development Partner with Microsoft. Electrovaya is also co-founder of the Plug-in Hybrid Consortium.

Authors: Tsepin Tsai and Sadeg M. Faris, Xellerion email

Title: NiZn Battery as the alternative battery technology for PHEV

Abstract: Lithium based battery have been considered as the main stream for new PHEV development recently. Many efforts have been sought to overcome safety and cost issues. Additional concerns about the lithium consumption rate and worldwide reserve for future large scale deployment have raised fundamental question about what other alternative battery technologies are available for PHEV. Xellerion, Inc. (USA) is a subsidiary of eVionyx, Inc. (USA) focusing on high capacity NiZn battery development with its proprietary hydroxide conductive membrane technology to provide superior power and energy performance. Xellerion is currently offering high capacity batteries from 20Ah, 40AH, to 60AH for different applications. NiZn battery with capacity higher than 100AH will be available 2008 for large BEV and PHEV applications. This presentation will provide detailed comparison of Xellerion NiZn battery to other leading battery technologies (Lithium based and others) for PHEV applications. This presentation will also explain why NiZn battery is the ideal alternative battery technology for PHEV.

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Session 5: PHEV Impacts on Utilities and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Part II
Topic: Impact of PHEV on the utility grid system and vehicle to grid applications

Authors: Efrain Ornelas, PG&E email

Title:PHEV: A utility perspective

Abstract: We will review the EPRI sponsored project to develop and bring to market a plug-in hybrid version of Fords F550 platform with the first variant being a utility trouble truck version with a Altec aerial device. An overview of the design considerations and benefits, and status report on current progress and timeline for first demonstration units will be offered. In addition, an overview of PG&E's work on V2G with EPRI and other stakeholders will be presented. We will review the various value proposition of V2G, impacts on infrastructure, the barriers and also the link to the advanced metering initiative at PG&E.

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Authors: Luke Langston and Keith Parks, Xcel Energy email

Title: PHEV impacts on the Xcel energy system

Abstract: Xcel Energy completed a study in partnership with the national Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2006 that evaluated the impacts of PHEVs on the Xcel Energy Colorado system and how to best manage vehicle charging to reduce carbon emissions. The study simulated and evaluated benefits and impacts of PHEVs using the following methodology:

  • Develop PHEV charging profiles from actual GPS tracked vehicles (modeled to simulate PHEV201 with a 9.0kWh battery) using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) ADVISOR model.
  • Develop a PHEV Load Analysis Tool to examine capacity impacts at the system, bank, and feeder level.
  • Model the Xcel Energy Colorado system assuming various vehicle penetrations and charging scenarios of PHEVs using PROSYM chronological production cost estimating software.
The team analyzed four specific charging scenarios. The resulting loading profiles simulated penetrations of 50k, 250k, and 500k vehicles, corresponding to 3%, 15%, and 30% penetration of PHEVs per total number of household vehicles in the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory. The study quantified benefits and impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for both the utility and consumer. The impact study found:
  • PHEVs significantly reduce overall emissions of CO2, which many claim is the lead cause of global warming.
  • PHEVs can reduce the overall operating expense of owning a vehicle and can save the consumer up to $464 in avoided fuel costs per year when compared to a traditional low-emission combustion vehicle.
  • If the charging of PHEVs is intelligently managed, mass penetration of PHEVs would significantly increase Xcel Energy’s revenue without requiring substantial infrastructure investment.
  • The level of displacement of vehicle tailpipe emissions is dependent on the customers’ choice of PHEV charging strategy.
  • Customer incentive programs to facilitate and motivate beneficial charging strategies could help mitigate negative impacts while maximizing benefits to both the utility and its customers.

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Authors: Ken Thomas, Fleet Services Manitoba Hydro email

Title: A fleet perspective on the role of PHEVs

Abstract: Fleets are often seen as early adopters of new technology, and are under increasing pressure to show leadership in greening their vehicles. Consequently, fleet managers face a plethora of choices and pressures - hydrogen injection systems, fuel cells, bio-fuels, hybrids, electric drive, fuel and oil additives all of which cost and few of which deliver on the promises; and yet fleet vehicles must continue to meet all the existing standards for safety, performance and reliability, especially in adverse weather and terrain. From a fleet manager's perspective, where does the PHEV fit? Where does it show promise and where will it not work? How do we balance issues like battery size and weight, payload loss, charging time and infrastructure, to maximize effective energy utilization. What are the practical issues, from a user's perspective, that must be met for the PHEV to move into commercial production?

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Session 7: Renewable Energy Integration and Drivers
Topic: Energy drivers that promote the development and applications of PHEV technology and its impact on sustainability, peak oil and GHG

Author: The Rt. Honorable Edward Schreyer, ASPO Canada email

Title: Peaking the capacity to supply oil and climate change

Abstract: The focus of this presentation is the reconciliation of the two principal motivations for reducing dependency on carbon-based energy in the years immediately ahead. That is to say, there is complete consistency and complimentarily between the case made for carbon dioxide emissions regulation and management as a means of slowing (if not arresting) climate change and the parallel case being made for decarbonizing our economy (transportation, home heating, etc.). Over the past 15 years the evidence has been marshalled and the case made of the crucial need to slow (and stop) the relentless increases in oil/gas consumption both for the reason of safeguarding global climate balances and also to own up to the geological and geopolitical realities which point to a peaking (or as some would prefer - the plateauing) of conventional oil/gas at approximately 2007 levels. The future is now.
The paper will go on to emphasize the critical necessity of adequate lead time for the engineering, design and construction of the vast alternate energy projects that will be needed on a scale that will stretch the capacity of renewable energy resources. The reference here is to all renewable energy resources: hydro, wind, eventually solar and in all sizes, large and small. The case will be made that most projections of future energy production by official sources, national and international, do not in fact give much credence to future renewable energy expansion. Despite the lip service to renewable energy/alternate energy, the silent assumption by most official sources appears to be "straight-line projection" for "business as usual". It remains to be seen whether these "policy assumptions" are being made in ignorance or fear or comfortable nonchalance. Major changes in rail transport/trucking: urban transit, electric-drive passenger cars/PHEVs are all relatively realistic possibilities. These options are a cause for hope since relevant technology is largely ready and there is professional competence. The outlook is troubled however, because of the sheer scale of the task and also because of the loss/waste of time to date due to the lack of political direction and corporate coordination as one sector waits on the other for the decision making process to gear up. This will require mobilization and a scale of effort comparable to 1914-18 and/or 1939-45. It is to be fervently hoped that there will not be anywhere near the comparable loss of life. Conversely it is very likely that much more will be required in terms scale of effort and organizational intensity.

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Authors: Nazim Cicek and David Levin, Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba email

Title: Achieving Sustainability in transportation for passenger vehicles using bio-fuels and the PHEV platform in Manitoba

Abstract: This study evaluates the bioethanol and biodiesel production potential in Manitoba from renewable sources to support a future PHEV based transportation sector. The production requirements to fully support the balance of energy needed in liquid fuel form for a number of different PHEV scenarios will be presented. Current and planned bioethanol and biodiesel production facilities in Manitoba, which are based on wheat and canola respectively, will be contrasted with potential future facilities which could utilize agricultural residues and bioprocessing wastes, on the basis of energy balance and greenhouse gas mitigation. A survey of potential alternative feedstocks for supporting waste biomass to biofuels processes will be presented for Manitoba and for Canada. Commercially available conversion processes will be compared to emerging technologies to project production yields, energy balances, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Technical challenges in adopting a fully sustainable transportation platform powered by clean, renewable electricity and waste-derived biofuels will be presented.

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Authors: Jack Wood, The Wood Family Trust & GeoLectric Power Company NM email

Title: Implementation of a geothermal-PHEV transportation system in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor

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Session 8: PHEV Experiences and Futures
Topic: Previous experiences with PHEV technology and where new developments can lead us

Author: David Checkel, University of Alberta email

Title: Experience with an early PHEV field trial

Abstract: The 1993-1995 HEV Challenge stimulated development of plug-in hybrid vehicles which were designed for electric-only operation with an engine used for range extension. One offshoot of this competition was a University-NRCan-Utility project to build an extra hybrid and study its use as an instrumented vehicle in service with an electric utility. This paper describes the study and the operating, energy consumption and emissions lessons learned from a relatively crude PHEV. The most obvious findings were that overall energy consumption and emissions depended strongly on the vehicle duty cycle and the electrical power source. This work stimulated further work in the developing field of Life Cycle Assessment. A more immediate finding was that the overall energy efficiency depended significantly on the charging strategy. Electric range was limited and the natural desire to maximize vehicle electric range led to significant compromises in charging efficiency and thus overall energy and emissions. Off-peak efficiencies of charging, battery and drive-train components were critical to overall energy and emissions performance.

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Author: Nigel Fitzpatrick, Azure Dynamics Corporation email

Title: Canadian sponsored plug-in hybrids and their impact

Abstract: Early plug-in hybrids are reviewed; two specific examples are used to supplement a description of an NRCan sponsored plug-in hybrid commercial vehicle of 1996. The first covers a case where a range extender the aluminum-air semi fuel cell system allowed the user the option of recharging the battery with regular electricity instead of using costly aluminum. This vehicle was exhibited in Toronto in 1988 at EVS 9 to highlight a Transport Canada supported project on an off-road hybrid; the road vehicle and its successors led to semi fuel cell sales to Renault, Nissan and Aisin-Seki (Toyota). The second describes a Canadian sponsored vehicle that the late Councilman Marivin Braude arranged to be shown in Los Angeles in the process forming legislation that led to the Californian ZEV mandate of 1990. The applicability of hybrid and electric technology to the commercial vehicle sector is discussed.

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Author: Huang-Yee Iu, Hymotion email

Title: Analysis of the performance of the Hymotion plug-in electric vehicle fleet

Abstract: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle technology is proving to be the next step in automotive powertrain technology, but because the current install base is quite small, very little is known about real-world installations and their performance. Although many simulations and small scale field studies have been conducted, an overall picture has still not been available to the public. Hymotion Canada - A123 Systems currently has the largest installed fleet of Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the world, and is in an opportune position to showcase the performance of this technology. Hymotion installs data loggers in most of its fleet in order to monitor the conditions of the Hymotion pack and to collect data on the overall performance of the vehicle. Parameters such as fuel economy, vehicle speed, and battery state of charge are collected and entered into a database for further analysis. With data being collected from installations located in very different climate conditions, from California to Manitoba; undergoing numerous loading conditions including daily highway commutes, steep grades, and inner city traffic, this paper will demonstrate the fleet wide performance of the Hymotion PHEV system and further focus the cost/benefit relationship for this technology.

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Author: Tony Markel, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) email

Title: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle design options and expectations

Abstract: Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles provide an opportunity to dramatically reduce in petroleum consumption and transition to using electricity in the automotive sector. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory related to PHEVs is focused on understanding the interactions between real-world travel patterns and PHEV design options. The presentation will summarize key research insights from both simulation and testing of PHEV operational impacts on hybrid components and the potential impacts on the utility grid.

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Session 9: Policy in Support of PHEV
Panel Goals: Discuss policies that can favor sustainable transportation by implementing PHEV

Presentation Claude Guerette, Transport Canada: Download PDF document

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Session 10: PHEV Simulations Part II
Topic: Simulation results of hybrid powertrains and PHEV architecture will be presented using simulation software. This session is related to the simulation courses occurring during the conference and to promote the use of simulation tools in support of sustainable transportation

Authors: Peter Radziszewski, Claude guerette, Charles Gautier, Eric Bibeau, Geza Joos and Vince Thomson email

Title: Moving towards a network for advanced power train research and development

Abstract: Download PDF document   Network details: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video   Survey: Download PDF document

Authors: Mariam Khan and Narayan C. Kar, Department Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Windsor email

Title: Performance analysis of fuzzy-based indirect field oriented control of induction motor drives for hybrid electric vehicles

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Authors: Wilhelm E., ETH Zurich, Switzerland; E., Fowler and M.W., Fraser, R.A., Stevens, M.B., University of Waterloo email

Title: Hardware-in-the-loop platform development for hybrid vehicles

Abstract: Powertrain modeling provides invaluable insight during the initial powertrain design phases of architecture selection and component sizing. A model based design process from the initial design phase to the operational prototype phase includes a series of intermediary steps that are required to integrate real-time and physical limitations of the control systems development prior to in-vehicle testing. These steps are Software-In-The-Loop (SIL), Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL), and Component-In-The-Loop (CIL) control and component validation. In addition to validating the component models, the intermediary steps are required to integrate real-time and physical limitations of the control systems development prior to in-vehicle testing. The major benefits of the SIL, HIL, CIL process are cost, time, and safety as control systems can be evaluated, and to a large extent validated prior to vehicle deployment.

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Session 11: The Future of University Student Competitions
Panel Goals: Discuss how to improve student vehicle competition in favor of sustainability and to attract more students from various engineering faculties
Panel Discussion

Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video
Leon Fainsteine, Red River College: Play Windows Media Video
Peter Radziszewski, McGill University: Download PDF document

Videos:

  • David Checkel, University of Alberta; Play Windows Media Video
  • Douglas Ruth, University of Manitoba; Play Windows Media Video
  • Panel Discussion Play Windows Media Video

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Session 12: PHEV Programs and Funding
Topic: Current funding opportunities for PHEV

Andy Frank, UCDavis - Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video
Mr. Walter Wardrop, NRC-IRAP - Presentation: Download PDF document
Rick Whittaker, SDTC - Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video
Isobel Davidson, NRC: Play Windows Media Video

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Session 13: PHEV and its Role for Sustainability
Topic: Emerging Canadian policy on PHEV to promote sustainability in transportation

Authors: Al Cormier, Electric Mobility Canada and Terry Zdan, The Centre for Sustainable Transportation email

Title: Greening policies for electric mobility

Abstract: Modern economies depend on transportation systems to service a mobile workforce and distribute production and transport of goods and materials. Transportation modes are highly dependent on non-renewable fossil fuels and generate a large portion of greenhouse gas emissions. Canada is well positioned to make a significant shift to electric drive transportation in most surface transportation modes. Electric vehicle technologies, including plug in hybrids, can provide a technical solution to reduction of emissions and produce a more efficient and competitive economy. Their introduction into the mainstream is constrained by a range of barriers. This paper focuses on governmental policy and regulatory frameworks and explores challenges and opportunities with a view towards encouraging and promoting advanced electric drive vehicle technologies. The paper will also provide an overview of the Canadian electric mobility industry.

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Author: Isobel Davidson, National Research of Canada, Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology email

Title: Canadian government programs supporting plug-in hybrid electric vehicle development

Abstract: Abstract: In April 2007,of Energy R&D (PERD) to support applied research and development on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. The goal of the Electric Mobility Program is to advance Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Technology in critical areas where Canada has world leading technology, and to provide essential technical information for development of policies relating to transportation emissions and fuel efficiency. The scope of the Electric Mobility Program includes the following areas of research as they related to the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle technology and associated policy development: " Energy Storage Systems " Electric Drive Components " Powertrain Optimization " Development of Regulations for Emissions and Fuel Efficiency In January, the Honourable Gary Lunn, Minister of Natural Resources, and the Honourable John Baird, Minister of the Environment, announced the ecoENERGY Technology Initiative. The S&T scope of the eco-Energy Technology Initiative includes increasing clean-energy supplies, raising energy efficiency and reducing pollution from conventional energy sources. Included in this initiative is a program to develop technologies for Clean Transportation. The priorities for this program are currently being developed. The goal of this presentation is to describe these Canadian Government programs supporting research and development of technologies that are critical to the development of commercially viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

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Author: Charles Thibodeau, Science and Technology Advisor, Office of Energy Research and Development, Natural Resources Canada email

Title: The international energy agency’s implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles

Abstract: The goal of this presentation is to explain the collaborative work being done by the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV). The IEA acts as energy policy advisor to 26 Member countries in their effort to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for their citizens. Current work focuses on climate change policies, market reform, energy technology collaboration and outreach to the rest of the world, especially major producers and consumers of energy like China, India, Russia and the OPEC countries. The IEA conducts a broad program of energy research, data compilation, publications and public dissemination of the latest energy policy analysis and recommendations on good practices. Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA has created a set of legal treaties – Implementing Agreements – that facilitate collaboration on research and development in a number of areas, namely; energy supply, energy conversion and end-use. These allow interested member and non-member governments or other organizations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. This international technology collaboration is a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. The Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles recognizes the important role these vehicles will play in reducing the dependence of transport on oil and at the same time, can offer the potential to reduce adverse environmental impacts of energy use. Recent work has raised many issues and important benefits related to plug-in hybrid systems. This presentation will attempt to explain the work being done by the members of this Implementing Agreement and its future focus.

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Session 14: PHEV Implementation
Topic: Technology ramification aspects to implement PHEV and their impact

Authors: Stuart Evans, Director of Sales, Delta-Q Technologies email

Title: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) - Charging for the Real World.

Abstract: The plug is the biggest differentiator between PHEVs and the typical hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Reliability of the charging component of the PHEV system is vitally important to the gains in fuel economy, reductions in emissions, and greater convenience that are critical to the viability of the PHEV concept. Understanding the on-vehicle environment and the AC supply infrastructure is critical to the development of the ideal PHEV charger. Delta-Q's experience as an OEM supplier of onboard chargers for industrial vehicles has enabled us to develop a considerable depth of knowledge of both the on-vehicle and AC input requirements. This presentation will explore the many challenges faced when charging from the AC grid around the world, while fully integrated in a variety of vehicles and mobile industrial equipment. A variety of factors will be discussed, including regulatory requirements, power levels, AC voltage/frequency, user expectations, usage patterns, size/weight restrictions, efficiency requirements, and cooling schemes. This presentation will also propose design solutions to address the competing requirements created by the above factors.

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Authors: Tom Cwikla and Frank Franczyk- Persen Technologies Incorporated (Persentech) email

Title: OttoLink- A Tool for Recording PHEV Performance Data

Abstract: The number of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is growing, but little is known about their real-world performance due to a lack of suitable data-logging tools. OttoLink is a cost effective and easy-to-deploy data-logger that not only records the vehicle's performance, but also the driver's reaction to the new technology. OttoLink™ combines vehicle power train data with Global Positioning (GPS) data to record the performance of the battery, electrical system, and gasoline engine, along with location- based information and driving behaviour. This data can be used to model PHEV system performance, as well as for planning purposes to identify convenient charging station locations for future Vehicle to Grid (V2G) connections.
There is also a challenge in recording vehicle-specific diagnostic data because the vehicle manufacturers are not obligated to present all the data defined by the SAE J1979 standard, plus, the car manufacturers are allowed to include proprietary Parameter IDentification numbers or PIDs that are only listed in internal company documents. In addition to the standardized PIDs, the PHEVs also include numerous channels of electric vehicle-specific data that are also not entirely disclosed to the general public nor to research institutions. This paper presents a tool that was developed to interface to a 2005 Toyota Prius to record the SAEJ1979 diagnostic data and the additional channels of Prius-specific data. Global Positioning System (GPS) location-based data was also included in the data capture so as to satisfy the key research requirement for a comprehensive and consolidated data set, including a master clock reference, for use in system performance modeling and for future infrastructure planning.

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Author: Mike Waters, Tom Outlaw and Kelly Boone, CSE Consulting email

Title: Using Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle impact summary for the progress energy Carolinas territory

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Author: Paul Zanetel, New Flyer email

Title: PHEV implementation in Heavy Vehicles, Transit Buses.

Abstract: Plug-in-hybrid-vehicle time is coming, it is a technology that will accelerate the introduction of propulsion system in vehicles with superior fuel efficiency and drastically reduced emissions, in some cases near zero, by replacing fossil fuel derived fuels with electricity generated during off-peak hours. Thus, offering a here and now solution to vehicle operators that will save fuel, reduced refueling costs and drastically reduce emissions, both regulated and GHG. The introduction of this technology in heavy vehicles, such as transit buses is going to be challenging but it will offer opportunities to the operators to make their transportation system more sustainable and in some jurisdiction like Manitoba almost "zero" GHG emissions. This paper will review state of the art implementation of PHEV in transit buses and identify basic problems that need resolution.

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Session 15: Advanced Vehicle Design and Simulations
Topic: Simulation results of student vehicles and model-based design approaches

Authors: C.J. Mendes, CrossChasm Technologies and M.B. Stevens, M.W. Fowler and R.A. Fraser, University of Waterloo email

Title: Model-based design approaches for plug-in hybrid vehicle design

Abstract: Plug-In hybrid vehicles represent a significant transition from conventional vehicles in both component type and modes of operation. The resulting increase in degrees of freedom in the architecture and control, further amplifies the need for advanced design tools currently under development in the conventional vehicle design space. The design tools must give accurate insight into architecture selection, component sizing, and control algorithms within a short development timeframe and with limited complexity. The use of model-based design principles, which have the ability to achieve these objectives, will be required for the design and prototyping of plug-in hybrid vehicles. This paper develops a model-based design process for plug-in hybrid vehicle design. Specifically, the intermediary steps between initial concept and working vehicle prototype are discussed, highlighting on Software-In-The-Loop (SIL), Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL), and Component-In-The-Loop (CIL) design phase. The associated objectives, challenges, and software tools are discussed for each phase. The process of initially developing virtual prototypes and the gradual transition to physical prototypes is presented. The ability to utilize auto-generated control code to seamlessly connect the simulations to the real-world implementation is highlighted. The major benefits and complications are outlined as the process is contrasted against the conventional design process. In addition, the existing drawbacks of current simulation environments, and the potential benefits of integrating an advanced vehicle simulation network into the design process is considered.

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Authors: Charles Dahan, Elizabeth Lee, Albert Mathews, Simon Ouellette, Olivier Proulx, Amrit Richardson, Peter Radziszewski and Jeff Turner, McGill University email

Title: Investigating the conversion of a personal watercraft to electric/hybrid drive through the use of Matlab/Simulink

Abstract: In the past 3 years, McGill University has pushed to advance power-sports vehicle drive train technology towards cleaner, quieter and more efficient alternatives. Projects to date include a hybrid race car, hybrid and electric snowmobiles and an electric mini Baja. McGill's most recent project looks at the possibilities of integrating advanced vehicle technologies in a personal watercraft. More precisely, the project investigates the feasibility of designing an electric/hybrid personal watercraft. This paper presents baseline power requirements developed from on-water tests of a fully instrumented BRP Sea-Doo GTI SE. Using the data from the on-water tests, the current gasoline drive train was fully characterized and modeled using Matlab/Simulink and performance targets were set for an electric/hybrid watercraft. These performance targets were then used to design various electric/hybrid watercraft Matlab/Simulink models. The computer models of the electric/hybrid and the gasoline watercrafts were compared on a performance basis. Various drive cycles, developed at McGill to correspond to different riding conditions, were used to compare the models in terms of energy efficiency.

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Authors: Simon Ouellette, Charles Dahan, Elizabeth Lee, Albert Mathews, Olivier Proulx, Amrit Richardson, Peter Radziszewski and Jeff Turner McGill University email

Title: Design challenges and possible benefits of electric/hybrid utility snowmobiles

Abstract: In the past 3 years, McGill University has emerged as a leader in electric and hybrid snowmobile designs. Over the course of those 3 years, different McGill prototypes have been used at the U.S. National Science Foundation's Summit Station in Greenland, early prototypes have pioneered a whole new category at the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge and more recent versions include the first hybrid snowmobile (not just electric assist) presented at the event as well as the 2007 Wendigo Prototype, winner of the Best Zero-Emission Snowmobile, Best Design award and the competition's Innovation award. This paper is based on McGill University's experience in electric and hybrid snowmobile design. It looks at the challenges in designing small, lightweight vehicles for use in cold weather. Past, current and future solutions implemented by the team to attempt to overcome these challenges are presented. Limitations of current hybrid and electric snowmobiles are discussed as well as energy efficiency and air pollution comparison between internal combustion engine, hybrid and electric snowmobiles. The comparative analysis of efficiency and air pollution is based on results obtained from simulations done using a modified version of Argonne National Lab's GREET model.

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Authors: Simon Ouellette, Charles Dahan, Geza Joos, Elizabeth Lee, Albert Mathews, Olivier Proulx, Amrit Richardson, Peter Radziszewski and Jeff Turner, McGill University email

Title: Development of a series PHEV "Formula type" race car

Abstract: Abstract: In early May 2007, a hybrid race car designed and built at McGill University won the SAE Formula Hybrid competition held at the New Hampshire International Speedway. The vehicle under consideration uses a continuously variable transmission (CVT) driven independent rear wheel drive system powered by two compact permanent magnet DC motors. It operates on a nominal voltage of 72V as a series hybrid via the use of a custom made single cylinder 4-stroke DC generator. This paper looks at the powertrain design of McGill's winning entry. Performance targets set by the team for the vehicle are discussed. Models of components, sub-systems and the complete system developed by McGill in Matlab/Simulink are presented. These models were used to try and predict vehicles performance and see if theoretically the vehicle could reach the targets. Results obtained from the computer simulations and hardware-in-the-loop testing are compared to the results obtained from vehicle testing.

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Authors: Amir Hossein Eghbali and Behzad Asaei,University of Tehran email

Title: Using ultracapacitors for saving energy in regenerative braking in hybrid vehicles

Abstract: An ultracapacitor bank control system for an Electric Vehicle has been simulated. The purpose of this device is to allow higher accelerations and decelerations of the vehicle with minimal loss of energy, and minimal degradation of the main battery pack. The control of the system measures the battery voltage, the battery state-of-charge, the car speed, the instantaneous currents in both the terminals (load and ultracapacitor), and the actual voltage of the ultracapacitor. This last indication allows knowing the amount of energy stored in the ultracapacitor. When the car runs at high speeds, the control keeps the capacitor discharged. If the car is not running, the capacitor bank remains charged at full voltage. Medium speeds keep the ultracapacitors at medium voltages, to allow future accelerations or decelerations. The battery voltage is an indication of the car instantaneous situation. When the vehicle is accelerating, the battery voltage goes down, which is an indication for the control to take energy from the ultracapacitor. In the opposite situation (regenerative braking), the battery voltage goes up, and then the control needs to store the kinetic energy of the vehicle inside the ultracapacitor. The measurement of the currents in both sides allows keeping the current levels inside maximum ratings. The battery state-of-charge is used to change the voltage level of the ultracapacitor at particular values. If the battery is fully charged, the voltage level of the capacitors is kept at lower levels than when the battery is partially discharged.

Technical Paper: Download PDF document

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Session 16: Future of PHEV and closing remarks

Author: Ed Innes, Manitoba Hydro email

Title: Future impact of PHEV on utilities

Abstract:: Download PDF document   Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Jasna Tomic, WestStart-CALSTART email

Title: PHEV cooperation and synergies to promote the development process

Abstract: Download PDF document   Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Arne Elias, Executive Director Centre Sustainable Transportation email

Title: Role of PHEV in Sustainable Transportation

Abstract: At the cutting edge of our knowledge of transportation and electricity grids are two converging technologies that operationalize and extend the core ideas of V2G and intelligent grids to provide a powerful vision of an integrated future energy system. At present, I argue, this is one of the best identified strategy to solve our energy crises if it is appropriately developed and designed. On one side are micro-grids and a range of associated technologies that make possible the concept of intelligent grids. On the other are PHEVs and EVs that support sustainable transportation and optimize our use of the electricity grid while supporting it directly, minimizing additional infrastructure and providing ancillary services. The PHEV is a seminal concept in that it is ready at a prototypical level today and can be gradually commercialized through extending electric only range, as advanced batteries become commercially viable. It also provides all of the benefits of ordinary vehicles and several important features, currently at a premium on first cost but at a discount on a lifecycle basis. It does two other important things. It allows the gradual development of premium pricing for both electricity and transportation fuels without penalizing vehicle operators. It will be argued that this in fact has to happen for transportation sustainability to occur. The significant added benefit from premium pricing can then be allocated to source emissions control through clean coal, cleaner fuels and research and development of both grid and transportation options that are sustainable.

Presentation: Download PDF document   Play Windows Media Video

Author: Chelsea Sexton, Plug-in America email

Play Windows Media Video

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Special workshops


Utility Workshop: Download PDF document


NSERC strategic PHEV workshop:
  • Strategic Networks Download PDF document
  • NSERC Download PDF document
  • Manitoba Hydro Download PDF document
  • AVPRnet Download PDF document

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Student posters on sustainability

Author: Amir Hosssein Birjandi and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: Effect of the blade surface contamination on the wind turbine performance

Author: Bhanu Duggirala, Shirley Thompson and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: PHEVs for remote areas - A case study

Author: Daniel Blacha and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: Evaluation of industrial scale biomass gasifier

Author: David Gaden and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: Performance enhancements for kinetic hydropower

Author: Jessica Saunders Download PDF document
Title: Optimization of bioethanol processing

Author: M. Paetkau, J. Yablecki, E.L. Bibeau, N. Cicek, R. Grosshans and H.D. Venama Download PDF document
Title: Gasification of typha cattail for bioenergy production

Author: Maeir Zalman Offman, Daniel Fraser and Allan Woodbury Download PDF document
Title: Evaluation of long-term sustainability of a geothermal heat pump based HVAC system for personal home use in the Waverly West subdivision of Winnipeg and resolution of the issues

Author: U. Ramachandran, N. Wrana, R. Islam, N. Cicek, R. Sparling and D.B. Levin Download PDF document
Title: Third generation biofuels production by a cellulolytic bacterium, Clostridium thermitdis strain CT1112 isolated from a termite

Author: Reza Ghorbani and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: Dynamic study of plug-in hybrid vehicles using PSAT

Author: Shamez Kassam and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: Kinetic turbines: Harnessing an enormous resource of renewable energy

Author: Tyra Wedel and Eric Bibeau Download PDF document
Title: Data collection from a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

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PHEV2007 Videos Quick List

Keynotes

Author: Andy Frank, UCDavis
Title: The Plug-In Highway for energy sustainability in both transportation and stationary use Play Windows Media Video

Author: Jasna Tomic, WestStart-CALSTART
Title: Beyond Hybrids - The HTUF process and pathway for plug-in hybrids Play Windows Media Video

Author: Phillip Sharer, Argonne National Laboratories
Title: The Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit - PSAT Play Windows Media Video

Author: Mark Duvall, Program Manager, Electric Transportation, Electric Power Research Institute
Title: Environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles -- energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts Play Windows Media Video

Author: Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology

Title: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Challenges and unprecedented opportunities into the future

Presentation: Play Windows Media Video

Author: David Hughes, Geological Survey of Canada
Title: The Energy Sustainability Dilemma: Powering the Future in a Finite World Play Windows Media Video

Author: Felix Kramer, Founder California Cars Initiative, Cal Cars
Title: Mapping the future of PHEV Play Windows Media Video

Author: Chelsea Sexton, Plug In America
Title: Plug-in Hybrids, the Role of Grassroots Efforts in Transforming an Industry Play Windows Media Video

Author: Ewan Pritchard, Advanced Energy
Title: Experience gained with PHEV school buses 1Play Windows Media Video   2Play Windows Media Video

Author: Peter Frise, CEO AUTO21
Title: Industry & University collaborations on future transportation research Play Windows Media Video

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Technical Sessions

Authors: Ed Innes, Emerging Energy Technologies, Manitoba Hydro
Title: PHEV, energy efficiency, and comparison to alternatives    Play Windows Media Video

Author: Alistair I. Miller, Senior Scientific Associate, Office of the Principal Scientist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)
Title: A Historic Perspective on the Future Cost of Off-Peak Electricity for EVs     Play Windows Media Video

Author: Alec Tsang, Asset Management & Planning, Generation, BC hydro
Title: EV charging evaluation - impact on utility     Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Lars Ole Valoen and Mark I. Shoesmith, E-One Moli Energy Canada Ltd.,
Title: The effect of PHEV and HEV duty cycles on battery and battery pack performance     Play Windows Media Video

Authors: A. Abouimrane and I.J. Davidson, National Research of Canada, Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology
Title: Electrolytes for lithium batteries with improved thermal stability     Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Gitanjali DasGupta, Electrovaya
Title: Conversion Kits & Battery System Solutions for PHEVs with Electrovaya's proprietary Lithium Ion SuperPolymer® Technology    Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Tsepin Tsai and Sadeg M. Faris, Xellerion
Title: NiZn Battery as the alternative battery technology for PHEV     Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Efrain Ornelas, PG&E
Title: PHEV: A utility perspective     Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Ken Thomas, Fleet Services Manitoba Hydro
Title: A fleet perspective on the role of PHEVs     Play Windows Media Video

Author: The Rt. Honorable Edward Schreyer, ASPO Canada
Title: Peaking the capacity to supply oil and climate change Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Nazim Cicek and David Levin, Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba
Title: Achieving Sustainability in transportation for passenger vehicles using bio-fuels and the PHEV platform in Manitoba Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Jack Wood, The Wood Family Trust & GeoLectric Power Company NM
Title: Implementation of a geothermal-PHEV transportation system in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor Play Windows Media Video

Author: David Checkel, University of Alberta
Title: Experience with an early PHEV field trial Play Windows Media Video

Author: Nigel Fitzpatrick, Azure Dynamics Corporation
Title: Canadian sponsored plug-in hybrids and their impact Play Windows Media Video

Author: Huang-Yee Iu, Hymotion
Title: Analysis of the performance of the Hymotion plug-in electric vehicle fleet Play Windows Media Video

Author: Tony Markel, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Title: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle design options and expectations Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Peter Radziszewski, Claude guerette, Charles Gautier, Eric Bibeau, Geza Joos and Vince Thomson
Title: Moving towards a network for advanced power train research and development Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Mariam Khan and Narayan C. Kar, Department Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Windsor
Title: Performance analysis of fuzzy-based indirect field oriented control of induction motor drives for hybrid electric vehicles Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Wilhelm E., ETH Zurich, Switzerland; E., Fowler and M.W., Fraser, R.A., Stevens, M.B., University of Waterlo
Title: Hardware-in-the-loop platform development for hybrid vehicles Play Windows Media Video

Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology Play Windows Media Video
Leon Fainsteine, Red River College : Play Windows Media Video
David Checkel, University of Alberta: Play Windows Media Video
Douglas Ruth, University of Manitoba: Play Windows Media Video
Panel Discussion: Play Windows Media Video

Andy Frank, UCDavis: Play Windows Media Video
Mr. Rick Whittaker, SDTC: Play Windows Media Video
Isobel Davidson, NRC: Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Al Cormier, Electric Mobility Canada and Terry Zdan, The Centre for Sustainable Transportation
Title: Greening policies for electric mobility Play Windows Media Video

Author: Isobel Davidson, National Research of Canada, Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology
Title: Canadian government programs supporting plug-in hybrid electric vehicle development Play Windows Media Video

Author: Charles Thibodeau, Science and Technology Advisor, Office of Energy Research and Development, Natural Resources Canada
Title: The international energy agency’s implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Stuart Evans, Director of Sales, Delta-Q Technologies
Title: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) - Charging for the Real World. Play Windows Media Video

Authors: Tom Cwikla and Frank Franczyk- Persen Technologies Incorporated (Persentech)
Title: OttoLink- A Tool for Recording PHEV Performance Data Play Windows Media Video

Author: Mike Waters, Tom Outlaw and Kelly Boone, CSE Consulting
Title: Using Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle impact summary for the progress energy Carolinas territory Play Windows Media Video

Author: Paul Zanetel, New Flyer
Title: PHEV implementation in Heavy Vehicles, Transit Buses. Play Windows Media Video

Author: Ed Innes, Manitoba Hydro
Title: Future impact of PHEV on utilities Play Windows Media Video

Author: Jasna Tomic, WestStart-CALSTART
Title: PHEV cooperation and synergies to promote the development process Play Windows Media Video

Author: Arne Elias, Executive Director Centre Sustainable Transportation
Title: Role of PHEV in Sustainable Transportation Play Windows Media Video

Author: Chelsea Sexton, Plug-in America Play Windows Media Video

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PHEV2007 Media Coverage

CTV: Hymotion Hybride and Eric Bibeau   Download Flash Video file

CBC-TV News:  October 30, 2007 Download Flash Video file   November 1, 2007 Download Flash Video file

CBWFT-TV News: (French) November 1, 2007 Download Flash Video file

Global-TV News: November 1, 2007 Download Flash Video file

Citytv News: November 2, 2007 Download Flash Video file

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Interviews at PHEV2007


Margaret McCuaig-Johnston, Assistant Deputy Minister, Federal   Download Flash Video file
Jim Rondeau, Minister of Science, Technology, Energy and Mines, Manitoba   Download Flash Video file
Lloyd Axworthy, University of Winnipeg,   Download Flash Video file
Andy Frank, UCDavis   Download Flash Video file
Nigel Fitzpatrick, Azure Dynamics Corporation   Download Flash Video file Download Flash Video file
Eric Bibeau, University of Manitoba   Download Flash Video file
Gitanjali DasGupta, Electrovaya   Download Flash Video file Download Flash Video file
Rt. Honorable Edward Schreyer, ASPO Canada   Download Flash Video file
Jasna Tomic, WestStart-CALSTART   Download Flash Video file
Tom Molinski, Manitoba Hydro   Download Flash Video file
Al Cormier, Electric Mobility Canada   Download Flash Video file
Felix Kramer, California Cars Initiative and Cal Cars   Download Flash Video file
Chelsea Sexton, Plug-in America   Download Flash Video file
Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology  Download Flash Video file
Andy Frank and Jack Wood   Download Flash Video file
Alec Tsang, Asset Management & Planning, Generation, BC hydro   Download Flash Video file
Sadeg M. Faris, Xellerion   Download Flash Video file
Solar Solutions   Download Flash Video file
Conversion to EV   Download Flash Video file
Joe Williams, Innovation Hydrogen Solutions   Download Flash Video file
Tyra Wedel, University of Manitoba   Download Flash Video file

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Public Forum

Panel Discussion   Download Flash Video file

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Bronze Supporters
Electric Mobility Canada - Mobilité électrique Canada Red River College of Applied Arts Science and Technology Electrovaya - Electric Vehicle Program Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation A123Systems New Flyer The Vehicle Technology Centre Innovative Hydrogen Solutions Inc. Persen Technologies Solar Solutions Assiniboine Credit Union